The appearance and functions of the different components of the mouth are checked, both the “soft tissues” (lips, cheeks, palate, tongue, gums) and “hard” (teeth). Anyone should go to the dentist for a check-up and prevention visit every six months. Even without symptoms or defects, there may be diseases in the initial phase, for example caries and tartar.
Tartar ablation is the removal of the tartar deposited on the teeth and on the portion covered by the gingiva. This treatment prevents gingival and periodontal diseases. It is normally performed on an annual basis but, in specific situations, more sessions may be necessary over a twelve month period.
SCALING E ROOT PLANING
Scaling, or supra-gingival tartar ablation, is the removal of all bacteria in the form of plaque or tartar, that are on the dental and prosthetic surfaces existing in the oral cavity.
It can be performed manually or with ultrasound instruments, called scaler scalers.
It is suggested to perform tartar ablation at least once a year on the occasion of the periodic monitoring visit, or in the presence of gingivitis.
Root planing, sanding the tooth roots, involves the removal of tartar and tissues containing bacteria that lie on the roots of the teeth within the periodontal pockets.
The removal of these infected tissues is extremely important for periodontal diseases and oral hygiene. It is performed manually and with ultrasonic instruments, or surgically, in case of very deep periodontal pockets, in association with regenerative or resective surgery.
The endodontic treatment / root canal therapy is the removal of the dental pulp that went into necrosis after bacterial infection. This can happen, for example, because of a deep carious lesion. After careful cleaning and disinfection of the root canals, the space is filled with a suitable plastic material (gutta-percha).
SIMPLE AND COMPLEX EXODONICS
Exodontics is the practice of dental extractions. It may happen that a dentist has to extract a tooth if the caries are extended to the roots and the periodontal disease, which compromises the support. Sometimes teeth can be extracted for orthodontic reasons: typically, in order to gain space in the arch.
The wisdom teeth may instead have to be extracted for various reasons: among others, malposition, bone inclusion and gingival inflammation.
Extractions are relatively simple interventions. Sometimes they can present complications, but they are always performed under local anesthesia. In most cases, sutures are not required.
FIXED TRADITIONAL ORTHODONTICS
Orthodontics deals with the alignment of the teeth. In this case traditional techniques are used, with self-ligating attacks, without any elastic ligature.
After the era of amalgam fillings, the modern resins, called “composites”, allow to reconstruct any tooth damaged by pathologies or traumas in an almost invisible way. In fact, composite resins have a wide range of colors to overlay or mix, to imitate nature as much as possible.
Aesthetic Facets are adhesive reconstructions prepared in the laboratory and applied on the teeth. The materials used to make veneers allow today to replicate well the characteristics of natural teeth. The aesthetic results are therefore of a high standard, both in shape and color. In general, disilicates and ceramics are used, which can also be processed in extremely thin layers, avoiding altering the shape of natural teeth.
Fluoridation prevents caries, as sealings do, but is also therapy for those suffering from dental hypersensitivity. It is the application of a fluorine gel, through masks, for a few minutes to both dental arches.
The treatment is highly recommended before application and immediately after removal of fixed orthodontic equipment.
Dental whitening can be performed on a single tooth or an entire arch, up to the premolars. It involves applying hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide in gel, under medical supervision.
It is usually required, in order to minimize discoloration of devitalized or stained teeth, due to pathological changes in the enamel.
If it is done in order to improve the shade of the complete dentition, it is called aesthetic whitening.
Caries is a process of demineralization of the tooth that causes its erosion. It is due to the action of bacteria which creates an acidic environment. This determines the breakdown of the hard components of the tooth.
The treatment of caries consists in the removal, performed by the dentist, of the infected area of the tooth; all the bacteria that caused it are also removed in this way. The area eroded by caries is then rebuilt.
The reconstruction materials, once predominantly gray, in metal (these were dental amalgams made of silver, lead, mercury) have nowadays been replaced by camouflaging composites.
MOBILE AND INTERCEPT ORTHODONTICS
Functional mobile orthodontics is used on teenagersin order to fix maxillary and mandibular conformation that creates maleocclusions.
AESTHETIC TECHNIQUES (INVISALIGN)
This innovative orthodontic treatment consists in the usage of progressive transparent masks, which induce the misaligned teeth to move.
The deciduous teeth, also called milk teeth, can be carious, as it happens to permanent teeth.
With their permanence in the oral cavity, the milk teeth favor the correct eruption of the definitive teeth.
The procedures used to treat children’s teeth, although substantially similar to those of permanent teeth, are different.
It is important that the sessions at the dentist are short, not to traumatize children and gradually get them used to the medical field instead. This kind of approach gains their trust. The role of parents, who have to prepare young patients on psychological point of view, is also fundamental.